The origin of direct relationships between males and females in Iranian culture is relatively new and started with other modernization processes that took place at the end of the 19th century. Before then, religion and tradition governed all such relationships and there was no question of males and females openly dating or socializing with such intentions. Veiling kept women at home and they became totally inaccessible to other males. Sexuality was controlled and carefully confined to the home and was male oriented. For women it was only a matter of reproduction and with the wealthy polygamy and the young concubines often in the same household satisfied the male appetite for sexual pleasure. The practice at the same time created conflict amongst the many women and their offspring all living under the same roof. Many tales and stories entered the popular culture magnifying the abusive conditions of the wives and their children some by using satire focusing on 'havoo' and 'bacheh havoo' other wives and their children.
Background: Sexual desire has biological, individual, interpersonal, and social dimensions. The question raised here is whether being a woman or a man influences sexual desire or whether gender differences contribute to it. Methods: This study conducted by a qualitative design and with a thematic analysis method. Data were collected using semi structured-interviews with an equal number of men and women chosen through a purposeful sampling method.
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Sexual problems are common among the middle-aged women; however, there is no deep understanding of sexuality in midlife. This is a descriptive qualitative study. Seventeen women aged 40 years old were purposively selected from urban health centers in Gorgan, Iran, in Face-to-face, semi-structured and in-depth interviews were conducted for data collection until data saturation was attained. Data analysis demonstrated seventh sub-themes and three themes. The findings demonstrated that middle-aged women in a male-dominant culture encounter paradox over being a sexual agent. In a bio-psycho-social approach, they perceived menopause as an opportunity or threat for their own sexuality. Following the conflicts, threats and changes of sexuality in midlife, they adopt diverse coping strategies to improve their sexual relationships and preserve their family.
Sexual practices as an important aspect of reproductive health have many physical and psychological effects on people's lives, there is limited evidence on such practices and their pattern among Iranian women. Hence we aimed to determine different types of sexual practices among 19—45 year old married Iranian women. This cross-sectional study was conducted among married women, aged 19—45 years, attending Taleghani Public Health Center for annual gynecologic examination during November to May using convenient sampling. The participants were enquired about their experience regarding different types of sex, as well as their views and feelings about such practices, using an anonymous questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 34 years. All had ever experienced vaginal sex and